Publications

Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management in Russia: View of Non-Governmental Organizations
One of the areas of state policy in the sphere of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management is provision of environmental safety for the population. On the basis of general legal principles the state policy of Russia in the sphere of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management should not contradict the fundamental rights and legitimate interests of its citizens. The right to favourable environment, ecological and radiation safety, sustainable use of natural resources belongs both to the current and future generations. These rights are legally important and they must determine the essence of adopted normative acts. For this purpose the state policy of RW and SNF management cannot contradict the national environmental policy.


The legal framework for the management of radioactive waste (RAW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in Russia and the bodies of state administration in the sphere of nuclear energy use (Russian version)
Currently, in the Russian Federation is an active process of formation of the legislation regulating issues of handling radioactive waste. This report analyzes the new legislation in the sphere.


Russian Nuclear Mono-Towns
One of the biggest secrets in the Soviet society was its closed towns and towns. Some of them were well known, but others were so secret that they did not seem to exist. Existing towns that were turned into a closedtown ceased to exist on maps. In other places big towns grew up without any trace on maps or any other official records. Very few except those who lived there knew about their existence. Often they were known to the outside world only by their postcode, for example Krasnoyarsk-26, which stands for Zheleznogorsk.


Foreign Agent Law: Impact on Russian Envoronmental Organization
This report is written with invaluable help from Naturvernforbundet’s Russian partners. It has been a challenge to finalize the work, as new organizations have been labelled Foreign Agents constantly, and as there is a constant flow of new information, news articles and analyses regarding the Foreign Agent law, and also on the law on Undesirable Organizations. Deadline for our collection of information was set on December 2nd 2015, when our partner organization Green World was formally listed as Foreign Agent in the register of the Ministry of Justice. We express our gratitude to the Ministry of Climate and Environment as well as to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Their support enables Naturvernforbundet to follow the situation around the civil society development in Russia, and help us make the information we have public.


Roadmap for decommissioning of the Kola NPP (russian version)
"Road map for decommissioning of the Kola NPP" project developed a network of international organizations "decommissioning". What is Kola NPP today to the Kola Peninsula, how much energy is needed for the Murmansk region, as it is produced today. What is the purpose of the decommissioning plan, is it possible to replace the Kola NPP, how to do it, what will happen to employees Station and the city Polar Zori. The document is still in development.


The Nordic electricity marked 2015-2030: Surplus And Lower Prices Expected
Through the common Nordic electricity market, Russian-produced electricity finds its way via Finland to the other Nordic countries. The export of Russian electricity has had a stable volume for many years. The amount exported equals the production of at least one of the Chernobyl type nuclear reactors at Sosnovy Bor at the south side of the Bay of Finland.i The exchange across the border to Finland and the Nordic countries has previously been in one direction: from Russia to the West. This has to do with the price on the Russian electricity, which has been consistently lower than in Finland and the Nordic countries in the past.


Road map for Kola NPP decommissioning
"Road map for Kola NPP decommissioning" is developed by the network of organizations working with the international project "Decommissioning". What is the significance of Kola NPP for the Kola Peninsula today, how much energy Murmansk region needs, how much energy is produced.Why the need for closure plan, is it possible to replace nuclear power, how to do this, what will happen to the plant workers and the city of Polyarnye Zori.The document is currently under development.


Opening closed rooms. 10 years for increased openness and public participation in decision making of the future of nuclear reactors in North West Russia which has reached their design limit.
For 10 years, an active network of environmental nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) has advocated more openness and public participation on the future of the NPPs in North West Russia which have reached their design limit, through the project “From closed rooms to openness”. The main focus has been the timely planning of decommissioning, as lack of plans obviously can pose an obstacle to start a process for closure. In addition, issues such as lack of accumulation of funds, lack of transparency and also lack of inclusion of social and environmental aspects in the thinking around decommissioning have been central issues in the project.


De-ecologization of the norms of environmental protection and natural resources legislation, and reducing the access to ecological control by the society
When characterising the modern environmental protection and natural resources legislation, it is possible to point out the general tendencies of its development. Along with certain positive tendencies (standardization, systematisation and others), there are also regressive elements to observe. Now, in specific branches of the legislation, there are changes towards a weakening of the requirements for environmental protection and an expanding space for uncontrolled environmental management.


Concept of a Decommission Plan for Old Nuclear Power Reactors (Guiding Principles from Environmental NGOs)
The Concept mission is to involve authorities, nuclear industry and general Russian public in the process of the timely planning of safe decommissioning of nuclear power units, which have reached their design lifecycle limit. Decommissioning is a complex, expensive and long-term process. It requires the integrated solution of technological, environmental, social, financial and ethical problems. For the Concept preparation the available Russian experience has been analyzed, other sources included materials and documents acquired during trips and acquaintance with the decommissioning experience of Ignalina NPP (Lithuanian town Visaginas) and NPP Nord (German town Greifswald). Both nuclear plants had units similar to those, which are operated in the North-West Russia (Leningrad and Kola NPPs).


"Foreign Agents" or environmental heroes?
The report is written by Naturvernforbundet, with inputs from Russian cooperation partners.
The report presents the main laws and regulations changing the working climate for environmental NGOs, describes how Naturvernforbundet’s main partners have been affected so far, and gives and overview over different adaptations to the new and worsened situation for the environmental NGOs.



Status of Russia’s decommission fund
This report focuses on financing of decommissioning, in order to provide a background for dialogue in this field. Safe and predictable decommissioning depends on financial resources. However, it has been questionable whether there existed sufficient funding for decommissioning. The report aims to tell the story of the Russian decommission reserve, the historical background and present situation. Even though we still feel that we do not know the total picture, we have collected far more knowledge then was available before. In addition the report provides background facts about Kola and Leningrad NPPs.